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It should be easy enough to measure the thickness of the thrust bearing, then the width of the crank. The difference is the oil clearance. Also can lay the bearing in the journal upside down and roll it around to check freedom of movement. I'm thinking your issue may be the fillet radius is too big on the crank, or that are of the bearing is too thick, or flat part of bearing is too wide to accommodate fillet. Mock a lot of things up one piece at a time until you find the problem area. If the thrust needed narrowed up a few thou, I'd not have any problem using 600 grit paper on a plate of glass, keeping it wet with solvent or thin oil, but take the metal off the front side where there never is much pressure on it. Never under any circumstances would you want to put it together tight and expect it to "wear in" lol! Normally things like that end up galling due to not enough room for the oil. Talk to an old time mechanic once, the stories about having to pull start "rebuilt" engines because they were simply bound up, makes me cringe. 

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Um.....ya. perhaps this whole post  by jmech would have been better off as a private msg.....or not at all......just sayn.  

I am an ASE certified master auto, master machinist, master H/D truck, and master School Bus Tech. Also was School Bus Tech of the year in 1998 for the United States when I took that round of test. Ha

There are many things that can cause this problem. The fact that it is free untill the cap is torqued keeps us from accepting it as a bad bearing. The answer to my question of is there end play and ho

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I apologize if I'm not posting correctly.  I will keep all my questions in one thread.  

Yes, please keep all your posts on this engine in one thread.... I think it makes it hard to keep up with info given, and where you are at in the project.  

 

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The question about the pistons was for future reference.  I'm not there yet, just checking others opinions.

Lets do one thing at a time and not get too far ahead.  You have some issues you need to resolve long before you worry about getting the pistons in.  Besides, with 11 years experience and this not being your first overhaul, I would surely think you would know that a crank has to be rotated to install pistons.  It's fine to be sure of things, but you are making it sound like you have never assembled an engine before.... ever.  That's a pretty basic question for a guy who is a tech.  That said, it isn't a jab towards you, it just makes me really wonder what else you may be missing on this project.  Like that question I asked before and Thesd5488 just asked:  How did you put the sleeves in and fit them?  Out of all the things to ask, that is one of the most important on a DT361:  Piston to sleeve clearance and sleeve out of round.  They have to be fitted properly and you have made no mention of fitting the pistons.  You have to do that before installing the crank because the block will have to be washed out after doing it.  We really need to stop right here and get that answered before pursuing the crank issue.  SO: Are the pistons correctly fitted, and tell use please how you did it.  It's important.  

 

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The crank and main thrust bearing are what bothers me.  I had to wait until the machine shop ground the crank before I could order the bearings because I wasn't sure what size I would need.  That's why I was asking if there were different thickness of thrust bearings, possibly standard vs. heavy duty.  Or do I need to take the crank back to the shop and have them recheck it.  It's 100 miles to the machine shop, oneway.

Well, that's standard engine rebuild procedure.  You have to grind the crank before ordering any bearings on any engine overhaul.

There is no such thing as "standard" or "heavy duty" thrust bearings.  They are made by size.  CIH shows only one size of thrust bearing, but that doesn't mean that someone else might make one.  IH shows the .020" undersize bearing as discontinued, so they aren't trying to keep these engines alive anymore anyway it seems.  I have no idea whether anyone makes different size thrust bearing for a DT361 or not.  Someone else on one of these threads you have stated they did not make them, and I'm inclined to agree.

 

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I have put pressure on the crank both ways and am only getting .003 end play . This was after I polished the bearing.  The crank turns freely, but I'm concerned that it might not be enough when it heats up.  I've been told that it will wear down and be O.K.  But I've got a lot of money tied up in this to take a chance.

First of all, you did what?  Polished the bearing?  How did you do that?  Do you mean the thrust portion, or the whole bearing?  You don't polish bearings.....

Moving on...

If you have only .003" of end play I'm confident it's too tight.  Book spec from the IH manual shows the end clearance to be .007" - .0185" with a max wear of .026" before reconditioning.  Now, if you were getting .0065" or even .006" I might agree it will likely be ok.  But not .003".  That' too far below spec and makes no sense anyway.  It should have been between spec from the factory and the max wear is pretty high before machining is necessary.  You either have a junk bearing set, or another issue.  Possibly a large issue, possibly a small one.... but one that needs addressed none the less.  But like I said, we need to go back and address the sleeves before pursuing this further, or we are all wasting our time, and your money.  

 

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The block has not been line bored.  Can this be done after the sleeves are installed?

Yes it can..... 

 

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The question about the protruding bearing on #1 main:  Flush end to end in the saddle,  the protrusion is toward the front of the block.  It is flush inside the block.  This is just something I am double checking before assembling further.

Lets go back to this. 

Flush end to end in the saddle.... you say it sticks out the front of the saddle right?  That might affect end play if it sticks out too far.  I'd like a pic of this, but it really sounds like you have a bad set of bearings.  What brand did you say they are?   

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@Injpumped That's good advice right there.  Hope you don't mind me breaking it down and quoting it..... 

 

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I'm thinking your issue may be the fillet radius is too big on the crank, or that are of the bearing is too thick, or flat part of bearing is too wide to accommodate fillet.

From what we are reading, I agree this is likely the issue, and I've seen it before.  I'm betting that is what he will find. 

 

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Mock a lot of things up one piece at a time until you find the problem area.

Rock solid advice.  Not that I need to say it, you already have a reputation here.  But there are some that think I disagree with everything anyone says.... and that isn't so. 

 

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If the thrust needed narrowed up a few thou, I'd not have any problem using 600 grit paper on a plate of glass, keeping it wet with solvent or thin oil, but take the metal off the front side where there never is much pressure on it.

I agree with this also.  I don't know why the bearing would be too thick, or too tight.  It shouldn't be, and I think he is going to find another issue.  But if he did need to take some bearing material off, that is what I would do also.  The front thrust face almost never has any pressure on it, and I agree with how you said to narrow it up if need be.  BUT.... it would be a last resort.  Honestly, I would get a different set of bearings first before doing that.  If two sets were tight, then I'd look into it.  But again, there has to be a reason because we know it couldn't have been that tight before.  Something is different. 

 

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Never under any circumstances would you want to put it together tight and expect it to "wear in" lol! Normally things like that end up galling due to not enough room for the oil. Talk to an old time mechanic once, the stories about having to pull start "rebuilt" engines because they were simply bound up, makes me cringe. 

Big "YEP"!! 

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18 minutes ago, Injpumped said:

It should be easy enough to measure the thickness of the thrust bearing, then the width of the crank. The difference is the oil clearance. Also can lay the bearing in the journal upside down and roll it around to check freedom of movement. I'm thinking your issue may be the fillet radius is too big on the crank, or that are of the bearing is too thick, or flat part of bearing is too wide to accommodate fillet. Mock a lot of things up one piece at a time until you find the problem area. If the thrust needed narrowed up a few thou, I'd not have any problem using 600 grit paper on a plate of glass, keeping it wet with solvent or thin oil, but take the metal off the front side where there never is much pressure on it. Never under any circumstances would you want to put it together tight and expect it to "wear in" lol! Normally things like that end up galling due to not enough room for the oil. Talk to an old time mechanic once, the stories about having to pull start "rebuilt" engines because they were simply bound up, makes me cringe. 

That was old day engineering though. They used to knurl pistons , knurl valve guides instead of replacing , shim bearings. It doesn’t sound right to us but those old guys would get them going good to. My dad was reading obituaries other day and a 70 year old from area guy from years ago died. He chuckled, he remembered in the late 60s they put a rebuilt motor in the guys Chevy. Dads boss took the car out on a high speed test run and blew the motor up. 

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I built a press, using a heavy plate on the bottom and a machined puck(for lack of a better word) and sucked it down into the cylinder with 3/4 fine all-thread.  It worked great.

  I agree, I'm not comfortable with the .003.  Tomorrow I'm going to order another Main bearing and make sure I didn't get a faulty one the first time.  Then if I don't have clearance, I'll be making a trip back to the machine shop.

Thanks for your input.

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No.  That isn't exactly what I meant.  

So, you need to stop.  You are going to have to go back and get that issue taken care of first.  But.... I have to go get my kids off to bed, so I can't give a detailed response now.  

Here's a short one: 

You have to fit the pistons to the bore.  When I do a dry sleeve motor, especially a 361 or 407, I fit each piston to the bore it is going in and mark them so they stay in order.  The dry sleeves distort when pressed in, and form tight spots that have to be honed out with a locking style (boring) hone.  I run my checks with a ribbon gauge and the piston.  (Others will likely say they do it with a bore gauge and mic's.  To each their own.  Both are acceptable methods.)  You have to make sure there are no tight spots, and that the piston skirt to sleeve clearance is correct on each of the cylinders.  I've never done a dry sleeve yet that didn't need honed to fit.  I'll post a "how to" a little later when I free up.  If someone else beats me to it, that's cool too. 

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54 minutes ago, TGFAIN said:

I built a press, using a heavy plate on the bottom and a machined puck(for lack of a better word) and sucked it down into the cylinder with 3/4 fine all-thread.  It worked great.

  I agree, I'm not comfortable with the .003.  Tomorrow I'm going to order another Main bearing and make sure I didn't get a faulty one the first time.  Then if I don't have clearance, I'll be making a trip back to the machine shop.

Thanks for your input.

Did you use the IH special tool step plate to install the sleeves to the correct height? If you pulled the sleeves down as far as they can go, you may have problems down the road with the flange on top of the sleeve cracking and breaking off. IH issued a service bulletin addressing this many years ago. Attached is an article explaining the proper procedure for block prep and sleeve installation. 

https://www.redrunrite.com/dry-sleeves-ih-361-407-engines-2/

More info with picshttps://www.redrunrite.com/dry-sleeves-ih-361-and-407-engines/

 

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5 minutes ago, striker782 said:

Did you use the IH special tool step plate to install the sleeves to the correct height? If you pulled the sleeves down as far as they can go, you may have problems down the road with the flange on top of the sleeve cracking and breaking off. IH issued a service bulletin addressing this many years ago. Attached is an article explaining the proper procedure for block prep and sleeve installation. 

https://www.redrunrite.com/dry-sleeves-ih-361-407-engines-2/

Thanks I copied that article for reference.

 

10 minutes ago, J-Mech said:

No.  That isn't exactly what I meant.  

So, you need to stop.  You are going to have to go back and get that issue taken care of first.  But.... I have to go get my kids off to bed, so I can't give a detailed response now.  

Here's a short one: 

You have to fit the pistons to the bore.  When I do a dry sleeve motor, especially a 361 or 407, I fit each piston to the bore it is going in and mark them so they stay in order.  The dry sleeves distort when pressed in, and form tight spots that have to be honed out with a locking style (boring) hone.  I run my checks with a ribbon gauge and the piston.  (Others will likely say they do it with a bore gauge and mic's.  To each their own.  Both are acceptable methods.)  You have to make sure there are no tight spots, and that the piston skirt to sleeve clearance is correct on each of the cylinders.  I've never done a dry sleeve yet that didn't need honed to fit.  I'll post a "how to" a little later when I free up.  If someone else beats me to it, that's cool too. 

O.K. Thanks

 

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1 hour ago, Injpumped said:

It should be easy enough to measure the thickness of the thrust bearing, then the width of the crank. The difference is the oil clearance. Also can lay the bearing in the journal upside down and roll it around to check freedom of movement. I'm thinking your issue may be the fillet radius is too big on the crank, or that are of the bearing is too thick, or flat part of bearing is too wide to accommodate fillet. Mock a lot of things up one piece at a time until you find the problem area. If the thrust needed narrowed up a few thou, I'd not have any problem using 600 grit paper on a plate of glass, keeping it wet with solvent or thin oil, but take the metal off the front side where there never is much pressure on it. Never under any circumstances would you want to put it together tight and expect it to "wear in" lol! Normally things like that end up galling due to not enough room for the oil. Talk to an old time mechanic once, the stories about having to pull start "rebuilt" engines because they were simply bound up, makes me cringe. 

I want to make sure, when you say "front side of bearing" do you mean the side toward the flywheel or toward the inside of the block.  I polished the side inside the block using 320 grit wet sand paper on a solid flat surface.

But just to be safe I'm ordering a new main bearing tomorrow and starting fresh.

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1 hour ago, striker782 said:

Did you use the IH special tool step plate to install the sleeves to the correct height? If you pulled the sleeves down as far as they can go, you may have problems down the road with the flange on top of the sleeve cracking and breaking off. IH issued a service bulletin addressing this many years ago. Attached is an article explaining the proper procedure for block prep and sleeve installation. 

https://www.redrunrite.com/dry-sleeves-ih-361-407-engines-2/

More info with picshttps://www.redrunrite.com/dry-sleeves-ih-361-and-407-engines/

 

Great write up to whoever Joe is.  

I am not aware of a special step plate offered by IH to install the sleeves.  In the article, Joe mentions he had one machined to use.  Not saying one doesn't exist.... just never seen it if there is.  

Joe pretty much describes the sleeve installation exactly how I do it.  But I think he needs to give more detail on hone fitting the pistons.

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Tool number is FES 24-7. 

 

Here is some info from a prior discussion. There are two pages out of the service manual that mention the step plate.

 https://www.redpowermagazine.com/forums/topic/44276-806-dry-sleeve-press-fit/#comment-417409

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Ok.  So, when hone fitting the pistons to the sleeve, here's how I do it.

So, get a set of ribbon gauges.  Those are really long feeler gauges if you (or anyone reading this) aren't familiar with them.  I have a full set from like .0015" to .010".  I like what Joe said in that referenced article about running the clearance just a bit looser on single piston cooling jet motors.  As a general rule, I like my clearances to fall in the mid to tight end of a spec, but in the case of this engine, they are fine just a bit toward the loose end or just above.  Book spec out of the Blue Ribbon manual show the skirt to bore clearance should be .0049"-.0069".  Last one I did I think I shot for .007".  So, take out ribbon gauges from like .005" to .007" or .008".  Take a naked piston, install the wrist pin so you can hang on to it.  Turn it upside down, and put the ribbon gauge on the side perpendicular from the wrist pin, or 90 degrees off the wrist pin hole.  See pic:

361.thumb.gif.78b60eb84c8cab654c04299e89b95619.gif

 

Sorry that was so large..... 

 

Then insert the piston into the bore with a gauge smaller than the specified clearance.  (Start with .002" or whatever.)  As the piston slides into the bore, if there are any tight spots, the piston and ribbon will get very tight.  If it is loose, move up in gauges until you find the one that gets tight.  Lets stop and define "tight".  If you can slide it in, but without much force, it's ok.  The piston shouldn't fall through the bore with the ribbon on it's own weight.  "Slight drag" is a good definition.  If you have to really force it, it's too tight.  Now, you need to insert the piston and do this check as it would normally run in the block (wrist pin parallel with the crank)  and also with it turned 90 degrees.  I like to do it with the ribbon in 4 places, 90 deg apart.  So I check it four times.  Why?  I'm not sure.  I'm a perfectionist like that I suppose.  Checking it on at least two spots 90 deg apart are critical though to make sure the bore is round.  The skirt is tighter on the sides parallel with the pin (where you put the ribbon) and not on the sides with the wrist pin holes, so it needs to be check in minimum or two sides.  Hone bore the sleeves until the piston fits to at least the .007" gauge.  Now, I want to make sure you understand what hone to use.  Use a rigid, locking hone, like this: 

313kQmBJbML._SX425_.jpg.3cfde652a9cf7bc6f04ab4376c0f5dec.jpg

(Picture off the internet.)  

After honing each piston to fit each bore, make sure to mark them to the hole they were fitted to.  This process takes time.... but it is a must.  Like Joe stated in his article, the sleeves and pistons made now aren't like the ones IH used at the factory.  It is as critical to fit the pistons to the sleeves as correctly installing the sleeves is.  

 

Just because there are some on here who think that I think I've never made a mistake, I'll share one I made.  My first D407 I overhauled was in an 856 my great granddad bought new.  It then belonged to my granddad.  It was one of our main farm tractors, and I spent a great deal of time in the seat.  The motor went, and I was tasked with overhauling it.  (That's a whole different story.....)  Anyway, I have a good friend and mentor who I helped me as I did the overhaul because it was my first 407, and knew there was some tricks.  My friend was an IH tech for most of his career and was "top of class" during his tenure at IH.  He failed to explain to me the difference between a locking rigid hone and the 3 bar flex style that is spring loaded.  I was a newbie, and I thought the 3 bar spring style would be sufficient.  Well..... we still have that 856.  It has about 4,000 hours on it at least since I overhauled it.  It starts fine, it runs great and burns no oil.  But it smokes.  Has since I overhauled it.  I feel certain that it was because I didn't use a locking hone, and the sleeves are ever so slightly out of round.  The rings seated up fine to them, but it must be just a bit low on compression because it gray smokes like an air cooled Deutz when it idles or it's cold.  (Like cold engine.)  Once it's hot, it's fine and blows black smoke just like a D407 should under load.  But I was never happy with it.  It just really burns my butt when we use it now and I see it smoking at idle.  The right tools and processes matter guys!!! 

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3 hours ago, dale560 said:

That was old day engineering though. They used to knurl pistons , knurl valve guides instead of replacing , shim bearings. It doesn’t sound right to us but those old guys would get them going good to. My dad was reading obituaries other day and a 70 year old from area guy from years ago died. He chuckled, he remembered in the late 60s they put a rebuilt motor in the guys Chevy. Dads boss took the car out on a high speed test run and blew the motor up. 

I actually have knurled some small engine Pistons for guys that were NLA........difference between then and now is now things are changed out, then they used everything past the point of being shot, and even then some really smart guys found ways to keep things going.  

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23 minutes ago, striker782 said:

Tool number is FES 24-7. 

 

Here is some info from a prior discussion. There are two pages out of the service manual that mention the step plate.

 https://www.redpowermagazine.com/forums/topic/44276-806-dry-sleeve-press-fit/#comment-417409

And there it is.  I sure didn't remember that.  I pulled my antique original Blue Ribbon book out.... and sure enough.  Tool FES24-7 is in the list.  The memory is fading on some things I guess. 

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2 minutes ago, TP from Central PA said:

I actually have knurled some small engine Pistons for guys that were NLA........difference between then and now is now things are changed out, then they used everything past the point of being shot, and even then some really smart guys found ways to keep things going.  

They used to have knurling machines for pistons. I trade school one of the local native guys had a 71 or so olds cutlass.he had to pull oil pan off and he said it always turned over hard since he had it. All the pistons when you looked up were knurled. She ran to.

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2 minutes ago, TP from Central PA said:

I actually have knurled some small engine Pistons for guys that were NLA........difference between then and now is now things are changed out, then they used everything past the point of being shot, and even then some really smart guys found ways to keep things going.  

The difference between then and now is material and machined tolerances.  On those old motors they were so loose from the factory and still ran.  Gas was different and engines were big.  Tight tolerances were unheard of, and engine life expectancy was relatively short.  No one got 10,000 hours or 100,000 miles out of an engine or a car.  It's not that those old guys where "so smart".  It just didn't take as much to keep that old stuff running.  Not that they weren't smart.  They just thought a little differently that most people did then, and now.  Like you said, they used stuff until it was shot then used it some more. 

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2 minutes ago, J-Mech said:

Tight tolerances were unheard of, and engine life expectancy was relatively short.  No one got 10,000 hours or 100,000 miles out of an engine or a car.

As a machinist, I don't necessarily agree.......if your theory was true, IH's dry sleeve diesels wouldn't give automotive machine shops who aren't up to speed on them so many ulcers for example.  

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6 minutes ago, TP from Central PA said:

As a machinist, I don't necessarily agree.......if your theory was true, IH's dry sleeve diesels wouldn't give automotive machine shops who aren't up to speed on them so many ulcers for example.  

I wasn't talking about the IH dry sleeve motors.  I was talking about the old machining techniques used on "old" motors.  Like way older than the IH sleeved engines.  Think Model T Fords. 

Lots of 361 and 407 diesels ran for 10,000 hours.  The 856 I talked about in my previous post had 2,000(?) hours on it when it was first overhauled due to a turbo installation gone wrong.  I didn't overhaul it again until it had 9,000.  It now has over 13,000.  

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13 hours ago, J-Mech said:

  As far as you doing it 40 years.... are you a mechanic?  

I am an ASE certified master auto, master machinist, master H/D truck, and master School Bus Tech. Also was School Bus Tech of the year in 1998 for the United States when I took that round of test. Have worked in IH truck and ag dealerships, independent auto and truck shops, service manager at a Kawasaki, Suzuki, Honda, and BMW dealership, manager and tech for a school bus contract and now farm so yes have been in the business most of my working life. And I am old school as I believe in diagnosing and repairing not just throwing parts at things until you stumble onto the problem. Also like working on and driving old school machines. Hope that is enough experience for you. 

DSCF5705.jpg

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5 hours ago, IHC_1470 said:

I am an ASE certified master auto, master machinist, master H/D truck, and master School Bus Tech. Also was School Bus Tech of the year in 1998 for the United States when I took that round of test. Have worked in IH truck and ag dealerships, independent auto and truck shops, service manager at a Kawasaki, Suzuki, Honda, and BMW dealership, manager and tech for a school bus contract and now farm so yes have been in the business most of my working life. And I am old school as I believe in diagnosing and repairing not just throwing parts at things until you stumble onto the problem. Also like working on and driving old school machines. Hope that is enough experience for you. 

I'm not easily impressed.  Knowing how to answer test questions isn't the same as being able to actually diagnose and repair.  The non techs will scoff at my skepticism,  but most all people will agree that there are "book smarts" and "wisdom" and they are two different things.  That said, you are well trained either way.  I guess that all your accolades will impress me if you don't as basic questions, and can help solve problems.  Not insulting you.... just basically saying "we'll see" if all those certs make you a good tech or not.  That's a long list of places worked even in 40 years..... if I was looking at you resume, I'd be scared.  Sorry if that offends you, just calling what I see.  I count at least 10 different jobs, unless some of those shops were within one dealer/business.  That's only 4 years on average at any once place and that looks bad.  With all of that under your belt, I would expect a lot more answers than questions from you.  (Haven't seen many posts from you so no idea which you do more of.)  You need not try and explain it in this thread though... PM me if you want to talk experience further. 

Throwing parts at something makes you a parts changer, not a tech.  Nothing "old school" about diagnostics.  Matter of fact, "old school" was a lot more guessing than diagnosing.  Parts were cheap and a lot of time you cold take them back if it didn't fix it.  Diagnostics is what makes a tech.  I'd hope that is how you go about it..... diagnose, then repair.  

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5 hours ago, J-Mech said:

I'm not easily impressed.  Knowing how to answer test questions isn't the same as being able to actually diagnose and repair.  The non techs will scoff at my skepticism,  but most all people will agree that there are "book smarts" and "wisdom" and they are two different things.  That said, you are well trained either way.  I guess that all your accolades will impress me if you don't as basic questions, and can help solve problems.  Not insulting you.... just basically saying "we'll see" if all those certs make you a good tech or not.  That's a long list of places worked even in 40 years..... if I was looking at you resume, I'd be scared.  Sorry if that offends you, just calling what I see.  I count at least 10 different jobs, unless some of those shops were within one dealer/business.  That's only 4 years on average at any once place and that looks bad.  With all of that under your belt, I would expect a lot more answers than questions from you.  (Haven't seen many posts from you so no idea which you do more of.)  You need not try and explain it in this thread though... PM me if you want to talk experience further. 

Throwing parts at something makes you a parts changer, not a tech.  Nothing "old school" about diagnostics.  Matter of fact, "old school" was a lot more guessing than diagnosing.  Parts were cheap and a lot of time you cold take them back if it didn't fix it.  Diagnostics is what makes a tech.  I'd hope that is how you go about it..... diagnose, then repair.  

Um.....ya. perhaps this whole post  by jmech would have been better off as a private msg.....or not at all......just sayn.

 

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14 hours ago, J-Mech said:

Ok.  So, when hone fitting the pistons to the sleeve, here's how I do it.

So, get a set of ribbon gauges.  Those are really long feeler gauges if you (or anyone reading this) aren't familiar with them.  I have a full set from like .0015" to .010".  I like what Joe said in that referenced article about running the clearance just a bit looser on single piston cooling jet motors.  As a general rule, I like my clearances to fall in the mid to tight end of a spec, but in the case of this engine, they are fine just a bit toward the loose end or just above.  Book spec out of the Blue Ribbon manual show the skirt to bore clearance should be .0049"-.0069".  Last one I did I think I shot for .007".  So, take out ribbon gauges from like .005" to .007" or .008".  Take a naked piston, install the wrist pin so you can hang on to it.  Turn it upside down, and put the ribbon gauge on the side perpendicular from the wrist pin, or 90 degrees off the wrist pin hole.  See pic:

361.thumb.gif.78b60eb84c8cab654c04299e89b95619.gif

 

Sorry that was so large..... 

 

Then insert the piston into the bore with a gauge smaller than the specified clearance.  (Start with .002" or whatever.)  As the piston slides into the bore, if there are any tight spots, the piston and ribbon will get very tight.  If it is loose, move up in gauges until you find the one that gets tight.  Lets stop and define "tight".  If you can slide it in, but without much force, it's ok.  The piston shouldn't fall through the bore with the ribbon on it's own weight.  "Slight drag" is a good definition.  If you have to really force it, it's too tight.  Now, you need to insert the piston and do this check as it would normally run in the block (wrist pin parallel with the crank)  and also with it turned 90 degrees.  I like to do it with the ribbon in 4 places, 90 deg apart.  So I check it four times.  Why?  I'm not sure.  I'm a perfectionist like that I suppose.  Checking it on at least two spots 90 deg apart are critical though to make sure the bore is round.  The skirt is tighter on the sides parallel with the pin (where you put the ribbon) and not on the sides with the wrist pin holes, so it needs to be check in minimum or two sides.  Hone bore the sleeves until the piston fits to at least the .007" gauge.  Now, I want to make sure you understand what hone to use.  Use a rigid, locking hone, like this: 

313kQmBJbML._SX425_.jpg.3cfde652a9cf7bc6f04ab4376c0f5dec.jpg

(Picture off the internet.)  

After honing each piston to fit each bore, make sure to mark them to the hole they were fitted to.  This process takes time.... but it is a must.  Like Joe stated in his article, the sleeves and pistons made now aren't like the ones IH used at the factory.  It is as critical to fit the pistons to the sleeves as correctly installing the sleeves is.  

 

Just because there are some on here who think that I think I've never made a mistake, I'll share one I made.  My first D407 I overhauled was in an 856 my great granddad bought new.  It then belonged to my granddad.  It was one of our main farm tractors, and I spent a great deal of time in the seat.  The motor went, and I was tasked with overhauling it.  (That's a whole different story.....)  Anyway, I have a good friend and mentor who I helped me as I did the overhaul because it was my first 407, and knew there was some tricks.  My friend was an IH tech for most of his career and was "top of class" during his tenure at IH.  He failed to explain to me the difference between a locking rigid hone and the 3 bar flex style that is spring loaded.  I was a newbie, and I thought the 3 bar spring style would be sufficient.  Well..... we still have that 856.  It has about 4,000 hours on it at least since I overhauled it.  It starts fine, it runs great and burns no oil.  But it smokes.  Has since I overhauled it.  I feel certain that it was because I didn't use a locking hone, and the sleeves are ever so slightly out of round.  The rings seated up fine to them, but it must be just a bit low on compression because it gray smokes like an air cooled Deutz when it idles or it's cold.  (Like cold engine.)  Once it's hot, it's fine and blows black smoke just like a D407 should under load.  But I was never happy with it.  It just really burns my butt when we use it now and I see it smoking at idle.  The right tools and processes matter guys!!! 

Just adding to your 856 story, if the one you did smoke, but doesn't use oil, it's probably a fuel system smoke problem more than it is a compression issue. I've seen so many of these old 361/407's with such mismatched injectors in them. When someone is rebuilding an engine, and sends me injectors to "just test them and see if they're ok" I do that first, then I tear them all apart and properly rebuild them. I've found so many things wrong inside that you could not see in "testing". For my professional opinion, testing unknown injectors is only part of the job. Testing is really for setting opening pressure and checking operation following service. I've seen spring seats upside down, several different nozzles in the same set, different opening pressures, sticking needle, though it seemed to test fairly good,  etc. 

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