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BD-144 & BD154 Diesels


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#1 TD-5

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Posted 03 January 2007 - 04:00 PM

Most of the people I have talked to about the BD-144 diesel seem to agree that they are a miserable starting engine. If the glow plugs arn't up to snuff, forget it they won't start. The saying goes " If the sun goes behind a cloud for 10 min, you will need the glow plugs. Mine is no exception & I just excepted that this was the nature of the beast. But now I wonder, My dad has the use of a B434 AG tractor for around his place & it has the BD-154 which is the same basic engine as the BD-144 with a .250" larger bore. The 154 starts like a dream compared to my 144. I know the 144 in my dozer is in good shape, fresh rebuild, inj p/p & injectors serviced, pump spill timed to engine etc, it starts about the same as before it was rebuilt.
The 154 in the B434 has a questionable history, & to say the least is long in the tooth. So what are the differences between the 2 engines:

My BD-144C : 1959 model with early style CAV BPE 4A 70R inline injection pump, Injector opening pressure = 2150 to 2200 psi.
19.3:1 compression ratio. Compression pressure = 475 to 525 psi @ 1750 RPM (???) <_<

Specs from book on BD-154 show:
CAV Model DPA rotary style injection pump, Injector opening pressure = 2350 to 2450 psi.
23.0:1 compression ratio. Compression = 445 to 470 psi @ cranking speed.

Also found some specs on BD-144A:
Same fuel specs as the BD-154 but with a 21.1:1 compression ratio, compression= 330 to 355 psi @ cranking speed.

So from what I see so far,the increase in compression ratio along with the increase in Injection pressure on the 154 would be benificial to starting.

Anyone with experiences or insite into these little Gems, please jump in :D :D

Doug
Going to Sea is like going to jail, with the chance of Drowning
G.M. 2 stroke motto: "Run em like you hate em".

#2 Big Don

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Posted 03 January 2007 - 05:12 PM

Doug,
From my experience, I would say it is the different pump that makes the most difference in starting.
The late BD144 engines had a CAV rotary pump like the BD154 and they started pretty good as well. We have a late TD5 here (serial #3721 ADT if you want to add it the list) that has the CAV rotary pump on it. The motor is seized so I can't tell you how well it starts, but I suspect when new, it was a good starting unit.
This serial number is the highest one on your list (I think) and I am pretty sure it is a 1962 unit. It must be near the last of the straight TD5's before the "B" series. It is pretty rough and will probably not be repaired.
Don

#3 TD-5

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Posted 03 January 2007 - 10:08 PM

Big Don, great to here from you, thanks for the reply, I had the same thoughts after talking with owners of the later TD-5's with the DPA rotary pump. The consensus seemed to be that they needed glow plugs for the intial cold start, but after that the engine started pretty darn good as long as it had some residual heat in it. I'm wondering now if it was a change up in injector tip design with/or the increase in cracking pressure by itself or in combination with the later rotary pump that contributed to the easier starting. I see from the parts book there are 2 different injectors listed ; #705 431 R91 for use with the BPE pump & # 3040 870 R91 for use with the DPA pump.

I will add your TD-5 to the registry for sure, the more the better. Your right on the serial #, I don't see a higher # for the early series, If you have a picture Send it along in an E-mail & I will add it to the listing also.
How is that other project coming along, still anxiously awaiting the details of the finished machine.

Doug
Going to Sea is like going to jail, with the chance of Drowning
G.M. 2 stroke motto: "Run em like you hate em".

#4 Michael Halsall

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Posted 04 January 2007 - 07:13 AM

Doug,
From my experience, I would say it is the different pump that makes the most difference in starting.
The late BD144 engines had a CAV rotary pump like the BD154 and they started pretty good as well. We have a late TD5 here (serial #3721 ADT if you want to add it the list) that has the CAV rotary pump on it. The motor is seized so I can't tell you how well it starts, but I suspect when new, it was a good starting unit.
This serial number is the highest one on your list (I think) and I am pretty sure it is a 1962 unit. It must be near the last of the straight TD5's before the "B" series. It is pretty rough and will probably not be repaired.
Don


The EARLY series "500" crawlers used the BD-154 engine, before being replaced by the D-155.

I have no idea what version of the BD-154 was used.

The early 500 crawler was also available with the C-146 gasoline engine, which were the same engine
options as the 424 Utility.

My discussions with people suggest that "500" was an improvement on the T-5 & TD-5.

Regards from Michael Halsall

#5 AUSSIE TD-40

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Posted 06 January 2007 - 08:10 AM

My BD-144C : 1959 model with early style CAV BPE 4A 70R inline injection pump, Injector opening pressure = 2150 to 2200 psi.
19.3:1 compression ratio. Compression pressure = 475 to 525 psi @ 1750 RPM (???) <_<


My B-275 is hard to start when its cold :( but I think maybe if I did the injectors eta it would be better :unsure: I hope :o

Jake.
CRAWLERS; 1937 TD-40 with electric start. AUSTRALIAN T-40/TD-40 registry, 26 listed. T-20. T-6, TDC-5
TRACTORS; 22-36. W-40. W-30. I-4 exarmy, AW-6. SAWD-6. SWD-9. B-275.
ENGINES; 6HP M. LB 2 1/2HP. LB 5HP with radiator. U-6.
TRUCKS; B-3. AL-160. AACO182D, Perkins 6-354. R-190, Cummins V8. 1968 RD-200, 180 supercharged Cummins.

#6 TD-5

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Posted 06 January 2007 - 10:11 PM

Jake, just curious, what year is your B-275 & which injection pump does it have on it????

Doug
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G.M. 2 stroke motto: "Run em like you hate em".

#7 AUSSIE TD-40

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Posted 09 January 2007 - 07:11 AM

Jake, just curious, what year is your B-275 & which injection pump does it have on it????

Doug



TD-5
its a 1960 model with a inline pump, think at that time thay could be fitted with the rotary aswell :unsure: lest thats what my 2 parts manuals USA + England say? dont know if these pumps are all that bad as I had a old DB here one time that had the tank + glass bowl + filter with lots of water and dirt in it, cleaded all that out and put a extra line from the externel drain back to the tank as it was losing lots of diesel, and this would start every time with no glow plugs :o dont know maybe the engine has to like new for it to start easy? :unsure:

Jake.
CRAWLERS; 1937 TD-40 with electric start. AUSTRALIAN T-40/TD-40 registry, 26 listed. T-20. T-6, TDC-5
TRACTORS; 22-36. W-40. W-30. I-4 exarmy, AW-6. SAWD-6. SWD-9. B-275.
ENGINES; 6HP M. LB 2 1/2HP. LB 5HP with radiator. U-6.
TRUCKS; B-3. AL-160. AACO182D, Perkins 6-354. R-190, Cummins V8. 1968 RD-200, 180 supercharged Cummins.

#8 TD-5

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Posted 09 January 2007 - 04:44 PM

Jake, Sorry, If I wasn't so blind :rolleyes: I would have looked at your info at the bottom of your posts & SEEN the year of your B-275. :D

I found another book I forgot I had, Its an engine service manual for the early B-275( thanks to magic mikey). It lists the compression ratio for the BD-144A as 19.3:1. with compression pressures of 480 -520 psi taken at 1875 rpm. It looks like there were 2 compression ratios for these engines, 19.3:1 & 21.1:1, probably early & late production. Suspect the 144C would be the same.

I've been looking thru 3 parts books I have for the early & late series TD-5s & the 500 series crawlers; TC-201A, TC202A, & TC203A to cross reference the major changes to the 144 & 154. Once I get it sorted out I'll throw it up here.

Doug
Going to Sea is like going to jail, with the chance of Drowning
G.M. 2 stroke motto: "Run em like you hate em".

#9 TD-5

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Posted 13 January 2007 - 12:13 AM

The BD-144 used in the TD-5's & early 500's was given the letter designation C & the engine serial # started at 501. i.e. BD-144/501C. I suspect the "A" designation was for those engines supplied for the wheel tractors?. The BD-154 used in the later 500's was designated BD-154T, but the parts book does not give a starting serial #.

From the parts books there were several change ups along the way.

At serial#BD144/778C there was a piston change:
S#778C & prior used #3040 369 R1 piston
S#779C & up used #704 099 R2 piston

At serial # BD144/1950C there were several significant changes:
The crankcase assembly( block ) was changed along with the front crankcase cover;
The Cylinder head was changed;
The fuel injection pumps were changed;
The fuel injectors were changed;
S#1950C & prior used #3042 475 R92 crankcase assembly
S#1951C & up used #3040 912 R41 crankcase assembly ( this # carried on in the BD-154T)
The differences appear to be a change in main bearing caps & bolts along with an access cast in the block for hourmeter drive.
The change in front crankcase cover appears to be for the new injection pump drive gear.

There is no part # listed for the cylinder head on engines S#1950C & prior. It advises to order the new head supplied for S#1951C & up, casting # 3043 824 R11 with the new exhaust vavles #3043 826 R1 if replacement on the earlier engine is required.. The exhaust valves & seats appear to be the change in the cylinder head. The early heads used exhaust v/v #3040 362 R1 which had a valve head diameter of 1.245" to 1.255". The new exhaust valves had a head diameter of 1.171" to 1.181"

The injector pumps were changed from the CAV model BPE mechanical inline pump to the CAV model DPA rotary pump.
Fuel injectors changed from #705 431 R91 for S#1950C & prior equipped with BPE mechanical pump, to
#3040 870 R91 for use on S#1951C & up with DPA rotary pump. This carried on in the BD-154T

The cylinder head used on the BD-154T was a different pt# than the head for the BD-144C. The difference appears to be the guides are different & the 154 head uses double valve springs & different retainers to the 144's single spring. The intake & exhaust valves are the same #'s as used in the 144 head.

There was a change in part # for the cam shaft between the later TD-5 parts book & the 500 book but no serial # break or info is given. The cam is used in both 144 & 154 engines.
There was also a change in Con rod pt#'s between the books to #3061 214 R91. The new rod uses the same wrist pin bushing & rod bolts as the previous rod #704 088 R91.

The crankshaft part # is the same thru all the engines.
Oh, and the BD154T used a different piston & liner ( of course).

There were a few other small items that changed up & I've probably missed something, but those are the major changes I see in the parts books.

Doug
Going to Sea is like going to jail, with the chance of Drowning
G.M. 2 stroke motto: "Run em like you hate em".

#10 mike_newman

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Posted 13 January 2007 - 05:18 AM

TD5...been following this with interest....this is not the first time we have had this type of discussion re "BD" diesels :) :)

In NZ, we had 588 of the 444 models...(same engine as 434...upgraded styling )
1111 of the 434 models
1298 of the B414 models
1947 of the B275 models
1649 of the B250 models
and 270 of the 276 models ( now there is a bit of useless imformation for you... :D :D :D )

...the old 250's and 275's were difficult to start for some owners.....but , with the correct rated battery and glow plugs all OK...they would start , even in cold weather...I had a 276 and a 434, from that era of small tractors....you are correct, those later models with that bit a residual engine warmth , they would start just fine, without glowing them...
They all gave very good engine life....and you will realise that our winter temps do not drop as depressingly as yours :) :) :) ...
I still see 250's still around, on small life style type blocks....although the "city dewellers " seem to have the money, when they buy lifestyle blocks...and therefore a new Kabota or similair is the prefered ...

Mike
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